Growing your lab


At this point, it is expected that you will have a simple lab setup with some virtual devices and some simple test boards, each regularly passing health checks. It is generally a good idea to allow time for your lab to settle. Run a number of test jobs and understand the administrative burden before trying to expand your setup.

Once you are happy that things are working and you know how to run that simple lab, here are suggested steps to follow to grow it.


When planning your lab, keep in mind the basic requirements of automation and LAVA:

  • Instances need high reliability.
  • Devices under test may often be prototypes or developer editions of hardware. This can lead to reliability and stability issues.
  • Extra hardware may be needed for automation which is not commonly found in generic hosting locations like data centres.
  • Depending on the type of hardware in use, it may have significant problems with automation. Some devices may need security measures disabling, for example.
  • Test jobs need to run quickly to provide useful results to developers.
  • Lab infrastructure needs to remain secure (some resources may not be open to the public).

Logical layouts

The simplest LAVA instance is a single master with a single worker on the same machine. Adding more devices to such an instance may quickly cause problems with load. Test jobs may time out on downloads or decompression and devices will go offline.

The first step in growing a LAVA lab is to add a remote worker. Remote workers can be added to any V2 master. To do so, use the Django administration interface to add new devices and device types, allocate some or all devices to the newly created remote worker and optionally configure encrpytion on the master and on the worker for secure communication between them.

As load increases, the master will typically benefit from having fewer and fewer devices directly attached to the worker running on the master machine. Complex labs will typically only have devices attached to remote workers.

Depending on the workload and admin preferences, there are several lab layouts that can make sense:

Single master, single worker

single master, single worker

This is the starting layout for a fresh installation. Depending on the capability of the master, this layout can support a small variety of devices and a small number of users. This layout does not scale well. Adding too many devices or users to this setup can lead to the highest overall maintenance burden, per test job, of all the layouts here.

In all of these example diagrams, Infrastructure represents the extra equipment that might be used alongside the LAVA master and workers, such as mirrors, caching proxies etc.

Single master, multiple workers

single master, multiple workers

A medium to large lab can operate well with a single master controlling multiple workers, especially if the master is a dedicated server running only lava-server.

Multiple masters, multiple workers

multiple masters, multiple workers

A custom frontend can use custom result handling to aggregate data from multiple separate masters into a single data set. The different masters can be geographically separated and run by different admins. This is the system used to great effect by


micro-instance layout

When different teams need different sets of device types and configurations and where there is little overlap between the result sets for each team, a micro-instance layout may make sense.

The original single lab is split into separate networks, each with a separate complete instance of a LAVA master and one or more workers. This will give each team their own dedicated micro-instance, but the administrators of the lab can use common infrastructure just like a single lab in a single location. Each micro-instance can be grown in a similar way to any other instance, by adding more devices and more workers.

Which layout is best?

The optimum configuration will depend massively on the devices and test jobs that you expect to run. Use the multiple masters, multiple workers option where all test jobs feed into a single data set. Use micro-instances where teams have discrete sets of results. Any combination of micro-instances can still be aggregated behind one or more custom frontends to get different overviews of the results.

As an example, the Linaro LAVA lab in Cambridge is a hybrid setup. It operates using a set of micro-instances, some of which provide results to frontends like


  • Some labs have found it beneficial to have identical machines serving as the workers, in identical racks. This makes administration of a large lab much easier. It can also be beneficial to take this one stage further and have a similar, if not identical, set of devices on each worker. If your lab has a wide range of test job submissions which cover most device types, you may find that a similar layout helps balance the load.

  • Consider local mirroring or caching of resources such as NFS rootfs tarballs, kernel images, compressed images and git repositories. It is valuable to make downloads to the worker as quick as possible - slow downloads will inflate the run time of every test.

    • One of the administrative problems of CI is that these images change frequently, so a caching proxy may be more effective than a direct mirror of the build system storage.

    • Conversely, the use of https:// URLs inside test jobs typically will make caches and proxies much less effective. Not supporting https:// access to git repositories or build system storage can have implications for the physical layout of the lab, depending on local policy.

    • Depending on the lab, local mirroring of one or more distribution package archives can also be useful.


      This may rely on the build system for NFS rootfs and other deployments being configured to always use the local mirror in those images. This can then have implications for test writers trying to debug failed test jobs without access to the mirror.

  • Consider the implications of persistence. LAVA does not (currently) archive old test jobs, log files or results. The longer a single master is collating the results from multiple workers, the larger the dataset on that master becomes. This can have implications for the time required to perform backups, extract results or run database migrations during upgrades.

  • Consider reliability concerns - each site should have UPS support. Some sites may need generators as well. This is not just needed for the master and workers: it will also be required for all the devices, the network switches and and all your other lab infrastructure.

  • Devices in LAVA always need to remain in a state which can be automated. This may add lots of extra requirements: custom hardware, extra cabling and other support devices not commonly found in general hosting locations. This also means that LAVA is not suitable for customer-facing testing, debugging or triage.

Physical layouts


If the master and one or more of the workers are to be connected across the internet instead of within a locally managed subnet, encrpytion on the master and on all workers is strongly recommended.

LAVA V2 supports geographically separate masters and workers. Workers can be protected behind a firewall or even using a NAT internet connection, without the need to use dynamic DNS or other services. Connections are made from the worker to the master, so the only requirement is that the ZMQ ports configured on the master are open to the internet and therefore use encryption.

Physically separating different workers is also possible but has implications:

  • Resources need to be mirrored, cached or proxied to multiple locations.
  • The administrative burden of a LAVA lab is frequently based around the devices themselves. LAVA devices frequently require a range of support tasks which are unsuitable for generic hosting locations. It is common that a trained admin will need physical access to test device hardware to fix problems. The latency involved in getting someone to the location of the device to change a microSD card, press buttons on a problematic device, investigate PDU failures and other admin tasks will have a large impact on the performance of the LAVA lab itself.
  • Physical separation across different sites can mean that test writers may see varying performance according to which worker has idle devices at the time. If one worker has a slower connection to the build system storage, test writers will need to allow for this in the job submission timeouts, possibly causing jobs on faster workers to spend longer waiting for the timeout to expire.
  • Each location still needs UPS support, backup support and other common lab infrastructure as laid out previously.


The Linaro lab in Cambridge has provided most of the real-world experience used to construct this guide. If you are looking for guidance about how to grow your lab, please talk to us on the lava-devel mailing list.

How many devices is too many for one worker?

  • Consider the possible rate at which the devices may fail as well as the simple number of units. Most devices used in LAVA are prototypes or developer kits. The failure rate will vary enormously between labs according to the number and types of devices as well as the kind of test jobs being run but is likely to be much higher than any other machines in the same location not used in LAVA.

  • The number of remote workers is typically determined by physical connectivity and I/O. Adding extra USB connectivity can be a particular problem. Most powered commodity USB hubs will fail in subtle ways under load. If the worker has limited USB connectivity, this could impact on how many devices can be supported on that worker.

  • The number of remote workers per master (and therefore the number of masters per frontend) is typically determined by latency on the master when serving HTTP and API requests alongside the work of scheduling the testjobs and processing the logs. A frontend can dramatically improve performance by offloading the result analysis workload from the master.

  • Be conservative and allow your lab to continue growing, slowly. Compare your plans with existing instances and talk to us about your plans before making commitments.

  • If a worker starts struggling when test jobs start close together, it is time to provide at least one more worker. Watch for workers which need to use swap or other indications of high load. In the short term, admins may choose to take devices offline to manage spikes in load on workers but every such incident should raise the priority of adding more workers to the instance. LAVA test jobs can involve a lot of I/O, particularly in the deploy stage. A worker with devices which typically run lots of small, fast test jobs will be beneficial for CI but will run at a higher load than a worker with devices which run fewer, longer test jobs. Consider which devices are attached to which worker when balancing the load across the instance.

  • Consider the types of devices on the worker. Some deployment methods have much larger I/O requirements than others. This can have a direct impact on how many devices of a particular type should be assigned to workers.

Workers in different locations

Many labs have a separate master and multiple workers with the physical machines co-located in the same or adjacent racks. This makes it easier to administer the lab. Sometimes, admins may choose to have the master and one or more workers in different geographical locations. There are some additional considerations with such a layout.


One or more LAVA V2 workers will be required in the remote location. Each worker will need to be permanently connected to all devices to be supported by that worker. Devices cannot be used in LAVA without a worker managing the test jobs.

Before considering installing LAVA workers in remote locations, it is strongly recommended that read and apply the following sections:

Remote Infrastructure

Remember that devices need additional, often highly specialised, infrastructure support alongside the devices. Some of this hardware is used outside the expected design limits. For example, a typical PDU may be designed to switch mains AC once or twice a month on each port. In LAVA, that unit will be expected to switch the same load dozens, maybe hundreds of times per day for each port. Monitoring and replacing this infrastructure before it fails can have a significant impact on the ongoing cost of your proposed layout as well as your expected scheduled downtime.


A typical datacentre will not have the infrastructure to handle LAVA devices and is unlikely to provide the kind of prompt physical access which will be needed by the admins.

Differences between bootloader types

The bootloader types used by the devices attached to a worker can have a major impact on how many devices that worker can support. Some bootloaders are comparatively lightweight, as they depend on the device pulling files from the dispatcher during boot via a protocol like TFTP. This type of protocol tends to be quite forgiving on timing while transferring files. Other bootloaders (e.g. fastboot) work by pushing files to the device, which is often much more demanding. Sometimes the data needs to be modified as it is pushed and it is common that the device receiving the data cares about the timing of the incoming data. A small delay at an inconvenient point may cause an unexpected failure. When running multiple tests in parallel, the software pushing the files may cause problems - it is designed to maximise the speed of the first transfer at the expense of anything else. This “greedy” model means that later requests running concurrently may block, thereby causing test jobs to fail.

For this reason, we recommend that fastboot type devices are restricted to one device, one CPU core (not a hyperthread, a real silicon core). This may well apply to other bootloaders which require files to be pushed to devices but has been most clearly shown with fastboot.

Take particular care if the worker is a virtual machine and ensure that the VM has as many cores as it has fastboot devices.

Also be careful if running the master and worker(s) on the same physical hardware (e.g. running as VMs on the same server). The master also has CPU requirements: users pulling results over the API or viewing test jobs in a browser will cause load on the master, and the database can also add more load as the number of test jobs increases. Try to avoid putting all the workers and the master onto the same physical hardware. Even if this setup works initially, unexpected failures can occur later as load increases.

Pay attention to the types of failures observed. If a previously working device starts to fail in intermittent and unexpected ways, this could be a sign that the infrastructure supporting that worker is suffering from excess load.

Maintenance windows across remote locations

All labs will need scheduled downtime. The layout of your lab will have a direct impact on how those windows are managed across remote locations. Maintenance will need to be announced in advance with enough time to allow test jobs to finish running on the affected worker(s). Individual workers can have all devices on that worker taken offline without affecting jobs on other workers or the master. Adding a frontend adds further granularity, allowing maintenance to occur with less visible interruption.

Networking to remote locations

Encryption and authentication

The ZMQ connections between the master and the worker should always use authentication and encryption if the connection goes across the internet rather than a local subnet.


The worker initiates the ZMQ connection to the master, so a worker will work when behind a NAT connection. Only the address of the master needs to be resolvable using public DNS. There is no need for the master or any other service to be able to initiate a connection to the worker from outside the firewall. This means that a public master can work with DUTs in a remote location by connecting the boards to one or more worker(s) in the same location.

If the master is behind a firewall, the ZMQ ports will need to be open.

Using a frontend with remote labs

It is also worth considering if it will be easier to administer the various devices by having a master alongside the worker(s) and then collating the results from a number of different masters using a frontend.